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《中国司法鉴定》2018年第1期

来源:《中国司法鉴定》 作者:匿名 日期:2018-02-06 10:42:57 浏览:3718

 

 

新时代司法鉴定工作的改革发展

 

刘振宇

(中华人民共和国司法部,北京 100020

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定是诉讼活动的重要组成部分,对保障司法公正具有重要作用。针对司法鉴定管理存在的准入和监管不严及司法鉴定行业总体发展状况不理想等问题,应当进一步健全统一司法鉴定管理体制。同时,从“严格准入,把好入口”,“严格监管,优胜劣汰”,“综合施策,强化监管”等方面不断提升司法鉴定行业形象。在司法鉴定科学技术能力水平方面,要健全完善制度体系,司法鉴定机构要加大投入,司法鉴定人要切实提高专业技术能力。我们要不断推进新时代司法鉴定事业高质量发展,主要包括加强司法鉴定协会建设,推动实施分级管理,建设一批司法鉴定重点实验室,加强司法鉴定公共法律服务平台建设。

关键词: 司法鉴定;统一管理;行业形象;科学技术

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.001

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0001-05

 

Reform and Development of Judicial Appraisal in the New Era

LIU Zhen-yu

(Ministry of Justice of the Peoples Republic of China, Beijing 100020, China)

Abstract: Forensic appraisal is an important component of litigation activities and plays an important role in ensuring judicial fairness. For the supervision of judicial appraisal, there exist some problems, such as lenient supervision for entry into the business and the unsatisfactory overall development of the forensic industry. We should further improve the unified management system of forensic appraisal. In the meantime, the image of forensic industry should be constantly upgraded by the measures of strict control of access, strict supervision survival of the fittest, comprehensive policy enforcement and enhancing supervision. As for the forensic science and technology capabilities, we must improve and make perfect the system of institutions, judicial appraisal institutions should increase input; judicial appraisers should effectively improve the professional and technical capabilities. Finally, we must continue to push forward the high-quality development of judicial appraisal in the new era, including strengthening the construction of judicial appraisers associations, promoting the implementation of classified management, establishing a batch of key laboratories, strengthening the construction of a public legal service platform for forensic appraisal.

Keywords: forensic science; unified management; industry image; science and technology

 

 

 

 

 

 

司法鉴定过程的法律规制研究

——以“其他类”司法鉴定为视角

 

刘克毅

(西北政法大学,陕西 西安 710063

 

摘 要: “其他类”司法鉴定与法医、物证、声像等类型的司法鉴定有明显的不同,鉴定过程中的许多事项,例如鉴定用途的合法性,鉴定标准的选择,鉴定材料真实性、完整性以及取得方式合法性的判断等等,都是与价值评判密切相关的法律问题。采取不同的法律规制方式,让法官、当事人有效地参与“其他类”司法鉴定的鉴定过程,以法官的审判权和当事人的诉权制衡鉴定人的鉴定权,可以提高鉴定意见的可靠性、科学性和可接受性,有效地减少补充鉴定、重新鉴定的出现,节约鉴定成本、提高鉴定效益,进而促进纠纷公正、便捷地解决。

关键词: 司法鉴定;其他类司法鉴定;司法鉴定过程

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.002

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0006-06

 

Study on Legal Regulation of Judicial Expertise

from the Perspective of Others Forensic Expertise

LIU Ke-yi

Northwest University of Political Science and Law, Xian 710063, China

Abstract: Others forensic expertise is significantly different from the types of forensic medicine, forensic physical evidence and forensic audio/video in many aspects, such as the legitimacy of the use of appraisal, the choice of appraisal standards, authenticity and completeness of appraisal materials, as well as the determination of the legitimacy of obtaining the materials, etc., which are legal issues closely related to value judgment. We should take different regulations towards the categories, let judges, the parties effectively participate in the other type forensic appraisal process so that the judges authority to hear a case and the parties litigation right can balance against the right of the appraisers and may improve the objectiveness reliability acceptability of the appraisal opinions effectively reduce supplementary appraisal or  re-appraisal. In this way the cost of appraisal can be reduced and the efficiency improved thus promoting the fair and quick resolution of disputes.

Keywords: forensic expertise; other type of forensic expertise; forensic expertise process

 

 

 

 

 

中国古代司法检验制度研究

 

朱姗姗

(南京师范大学 法学院,江苏 南京 210046

 

摘 要: 司法检验制度是一个历史的进程,其随着政治制度、司法制度的不断更替而进化,随着科学技术发展水平的进步而完善。中国古代司法检验制度开始于西周,在秦代形成为制度,于唐宋时期达到鼎盛。在法律上规定了检验的程序、检验文书以及检验不实的惩戒;在实践中形成和涌现了大量有关检验的私家著作。元、明、清是中国古代司法检验制度停滞不前的时代,虽在制度上结合时代特点稍作改动,但没有实质性发展。中国古代司法检验制度无论在制度实践还是在检验技术上都对当代中国检验鉴定制度有积极的借鉴意义,而古代司法检验制度发展中所存在的弊端应是我国当代司法检验制度建设中必须要避免的。

关键词: 诉讼制度;司法检验;司法鉴定

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.003

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0012-09

 

Research of the Ancient Chinese Judicial Inspection System

ZHU Shan-shan

Law School of Nanjing Normal University Nanjing 210046 China

Abstract: The Judicial inspection system is a historically developing process. It evolves with the continuous change of the political system and judicial system and improves with the development of science and technology. The ancient Chinese judicial inspection system began in the Western Zhou Dynasty and formed in the Qin Dynasty. The judicial inspection system reached its peak during the Tang and Song Dynasties. The pertinent law provided the inspection process inspection instrument and penalty discipline for false inspection. In practice a large number of private books about judicial inspection were published. Yuan Ming and Qing Dynasties were an era when the ancient Chinese judicial inspection system stagnated. Although it was slightly changed it had not developed substantively. The useful experience of ancient China deserves to be learned not only for its system but also for its techniques and the defects of the systems should be avoided.

Keywords: litigation system; judicial inspection; judicial appraisal

 

 

 

 

 

司法鉴定标准化法制机制建设研究

 

朱晋峰,沈

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市法医学重点实验室 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定标准化法制是司法鉴定标准化工作能否顺利运行的关键,影响到司法鉴定最终结果的准确性。在研究司法鉴定标准化法制问题之前,有必要对司法鉴定标准、司法鉴定标准化、司法鉴定标准化工作、司法鉴定标准化法制等相近概念予以厘清。同时,应当明确无论是从国际司法协作、履行国际条约角度,还是从顺应以审判为中心的诉讼制度改革、树立司法鉴定权威、公信力等角度来看,都有必要对司法鉴定标准化法制机制问题予以研究。针对目前司法鉴定标准化立法滞后、司法鉴定标准的司法适用性较差、司法鉴定标准政出多门等问题,提出应当以新《标准化法》的颁布为契机,考虑发布《司法鉴定标准化管理办法》;同时,明确司法鉴定标准的管理机构;明确政府在司法鉴定标准中的地位;鼓励司法鉴定行业的团体标准,鼓励司法鉴定机构制定机构标准。

关键词: 司法鉴定;标准化;标准化法制;司法鉴定标准化委员会

中图分类号: DF8 D919.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.004

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0021-10

 

Study on the Rules for the Construction of Judicial Appraisal Standardization

ZHU Jin-feng, SHEN Min

(Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Senice Platform, Academy of Forensic Science,

Shanghai 200063, China)

Abstract: The rules for  forensic appraisal standardization is the key to the successful operation of forensic standardization work, which further affects the accuracy of the final results of forensic appraisal. Before studying this issue, it is necessary to clarify the similar concepts of forensic appraisal standard, standardization of forensic appraisal, specific work of standardization and rules for forensic appraisal standardization. At the same time, we should make it clear that we need to do research on this issue both from the perspective of international judicial cooperation, the implementation of international treaties, and from the perspective of the trial-centered litigation system reform, establishing the authority of judicial appraisal and credibility. In view of the current situation that legislation regarding standardization of forensic is lagging behind, the applicability of forensic standard to litigations is poor, and forensic standards are made by different organizations, we should take the opportunity of the promulgation of the new Standardization Law to consider issuing the Standardization Management Methods of Forensic Appraisal. At the same time, we should make clear the administrative units of the forensic standards and the administrative position in forensic standards; encourage industry standards of forensic appraisal and encourage forensic institutions to develop institutional standards.

Keywords: forensic; standardization; rule for standardization; committee for forensic appraisal standardization

 

 

 

 

 

 

司法鉴定标准化管理的路径探讨

 

何晓丹,沈

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市法医学重点实验室 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

摘 要: 统一的司法鉴定标准是保障司法公正、提升公信力的有效途径,也是“健全统一司法鉴定管理体制”的重要组成部分。自2005年全国人大常委会《关于司法鉴定管理问题的决定》颁布以来,理论界和实务界围绕“统一管理”问题展开了热烈的讨论,但多集中于对“管理体制”的探讨,鲜有就标准化管理问题的专门论述。在国家标准化战略的大背景下,基于我国司法鉴定标准化现状及存在问题,厘清统一司法鉴定标准化管理的必要性并从管理体制、运行机制、实施监督体系和保障体系探讨统一司法鉴定标准化管理的可能路径。

关键词: 司法鉴定;标准化;标准管理;技术法规

中图分类号: DF794 D919.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.005

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0031-06

 

Discussion on the Approach to the Standard Management of Forensic Appraisal

HE Xiao-dan, SHEN Min

(Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Senice Platform, Academy of Forensic Science,

Shanghai 200063, China)

Abstract: Unified forensic appraisal standards are not only the effective way to ensure judicial justice and improve the credibility thereof, but also an important part of the unified forensic system. Since the promulgation of the Decision of the NPC Standing Committee on the Management of Judicial Appraisal in 2005, a heated discussion has been going on regarding the unified management. However, the majority focused on the management system, while few are specific on the standardized management of forensic appraisal. With the rise of the national standardization strategy, this paper elaborates the current situation and existing problems, clarifies the necessity thereof and discusses the probable way of forensic standardization management from the perspective of the management system, the operation mechanism, the supervision system, as well as the safeguard system.

Keywords: forensic science; standardization; standardized management; technical regubitions

 

 

 

 

 

 

司法鉴定/法庭科学领域能力验证标准化现状与建议

 

贾汝静,葛曼丽,曹 实,王腊梅,孙玉澄,王彦斌

(中国合格评定国家认可中心,北京 100062

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定是司法活动的重要环节,司法鉴定的质量直接关系到人民群众的合法权益,随着全面依法治国的深入推进,司法鉴定质量保障体系建设已成为我国司法行政改革的重要内容。能力验证是一种国际公认的评价实验室和检验机构技术能力的有效技术手段,司法鉴定/法庭科学领域的能力验证活动对于评价鉴定机构能力和改进鉴定机构工作质量的作用日益显著。通过查阅相关文献,总结司法鉴定/法庭科学领域能力验证标准化的现状,并提出对我国司法鉴定/法庭科学领域能力验证标准化发展的建议。

关键词: 司法鉴定/法庭科学领域;能力验证;标准化

中图分类号: DF794 TB9  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.006

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0037-05

 

Present Situation of Standardization in Forensic Proficiency Testing and Suggestions for Improvement

JIA Ru-jin, GE Man-li, CAO Shi, WANG La-mei, SUN Yu-cheng, WANG Yan-bin

(China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment, Beijing 100062, China)

Abstract: Forensic expertise is important in the judicial activities. Its quality has a direct influence on the legitimate rights and interests of the broad masses of the people. With the promotion of comprehensively advancing rule of law, the construction of the forensic quality assurance system has become an important part of the judicial administration reform in our country. Proficiency testing is internationally recognized as an effective tool to evaluate the technological capabilities of laboratories and inspection agencies. Proficiency testing in forensic science plays an increasingly significant role in evaluating the competence of forensic units and improving the quality of their work. This paper summarized the current standardization situation of forensic proficiency testing by reviewing the relevant literatures, and put forward some suggestions on the standardization of forensic proficiency testing in China.

Keywords: forensic science; proficiency testing; standardization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

法医毒物鉴定专业标准体系构建

 

伟,沈 敏,陈 航,严

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市法医学重点实验室 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

摘 要: 法医毒物鉴定具有科学和法律的双重属性,必须满足科学性、规范性、可靠性的基本要求。在分析法医毒物鉴定标准化现状以及存在问题的基础上,提出专业标准体系构建的目标和原则,阐述标准体系的层次结构和内容。标准体系分为基础标准、技术标准和管理标准三大类。构建的法医毒物鉴定专业标准体系框架,既能满足国内司法鉴定实践要求,又要符合科学原则和国际规则,并具有一定的前瞻性,从而为法医毒物鉴定标准研制和标准化建设提供依据和指导。

关键词: 法医毒物鉴定;标准体系;体系结构

中图分类号: DF795.2 D919.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.007

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0042-05

 

The Construction of Standard System of Forensic Toxicology Identification

LIU Wei, SHEN Min, CHEN Hang, YAN Hui

(Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Senice Platform, Academy of Forensic Science,

 Shanghai 200063, China)

Abstract: Forensic toxicology identification has the dual attributes of science and law, which must meet the basic requirements of being scientific, standardizing and reliable. Based on the current situation and existing problems of forensic toxicology standardization, the authors put forward the objectives and principles for the sake of the standard system construction, and expounds the hierarchical structure and contents of the standard system. The standard system is divided into three categories: basic standard, technical standard and management standard. The framework of the professional standard system of forensic toxicology, which meets the requirement of domestic judicial practice, accords with the scientific principles and international rules, and is forward-looking, will provide the basis and guidance for the development and standardization of forensic toxicology identification.

Keywords: forensic toxicology identification; standard system; structure of standard system

 

 

 

 

 

法庭科学领域中泥土物证的发展综述

 

于颖超1,王元凤12

1.中国政法大学 证据科学教育部重点实验室,北京 100088 2.2011”计划司法文明协同创新中心,北京 100088

 

摘 要: 泥土广泛存在于自然界中,是交通肇事、凶杀、盗窃、强奸等各类刑事案件现场频繁出现的物证之一。泥土物证检验在追溯犯罪活动区域,匹配(排除)犯罪嫌疑人两个方面都发挥着重要的作用。然而,就目前的刑事案件物证形式来看,泥土物证在法庭上并没有充分发挥作用。从泥土的物理特性、化学特性、矿物学特性三个方面,对泥土样品的法庭科学检验技术进行了系统梳理,并结合前沿文献总结分析泥土物证在法庭科学领域面临的问题以及未来的发展趋势。希望能够为致力于法庭科学领域泥土物证研究的学者提供参考建议。

关键词: 法庭科学;泥土物证;物理特性;化学特性;矿物学特性

中图分类号: DF794.3  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.008

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0047-13

 

Review on the Development of Forensic Analysis of Soil Evidence

YU Ying-chao1, WANG Yuan-feng1,2

1. Key Laboratory of Evidence Science China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100088, China;

2. 2011 Plan China Collaborative Innovation Center of Judicial Civilization, Beijing 100088, China)

Abstract Soil is widespread in nature and is one of the physical evidences that frequently found on various crime scenes, such as traffic accidents, murder, theft, rape, etc.. Forensic analysis of soil evidence plays an important role in both sourcing criminal activities and matching or excluding criminal suspects. However, according to the current state of forensic evidence in criminal cases, forensic analysis of soil is underutilized in court. This paper reviewed the analytical technologies of forensic soil samples from three aspects: physical characteristics, chemical properties and mineralogical properties; outlined the problems facing forensic analysis of soil sample; and looked forward its developing trends in the future. The authors hope that this paper can provide reference for scholars who are devoted to the study of soil evidence in forensic science.

Keywords: forensic science; soil evidence; physical characteristics; chemical property; mineralogical property

 

 

 

 

 

 

MRS在法医学中的研究及应用

 

1,张 2,倪春明1,刘 1,李 1,于建云3

1.云南警官学院,云南 昆明 650223 2.嵩明县公安局,云南 嵩明 651700

3.昆明医科大学,云南 昆明 650500

 

摘 要: 磁共振波谱(magnetic resonance spectrumMRS)是一种利用磁共振现象和化学位移作用进行一系列原子核和化合物分析的新技术。该方法不破坏被检组织,是目前唯一可以在基因水平上对器官、组织的生化代谢进行无创检测的方法,并可在同一条件下、一次性检测多种代谢物。MRS在临床研究与应用方面不乏报道,在死亡时间以及脑震荡、脑损伤、轴索损伤等法医学研究方面也已不乏成果。综述MRS在法医学中的研究成果,旨在为该方法在法医学领域的进一步研究与实际应用提供新的方向。

关键词: 法医学;MRS;脑损伤

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.009

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0060-04

 

Research and Application of MRS in Forensic Medicine

GAO Sheng1, ZHANG Tao2, NI Chun-ming1, LIU Yan1, LI Bin1, YU Jian-yun3

1. Yunnan Police coullege, Kunming 650223, China; 2. Songming Bureau Public Security, Songming 651700 China;

3. Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China

Abstract: Magnetic resonance spectrum MRS is a new technique that can be used in the analysis of a series of nuclei and compounds by the magnetic resonance phenomenon and chemical shift effect. It can test a variety of metabolites simultaneously under the same conditions. It does not change the inspected organization and currently is the only non-invasive method to detect biochemical metabolism and genes. There are reports about its use in forensic medicine. The paper summarized the applications of MRS in forensic medicine in order to provide reference for future studies.

Keywords: forensic medicine; MRS; brain injury

 

 

 

 

 

 

裂解气相色谱-质谱法检测常见塑料制品高聚物

 

吴国萍,周亚红

(江苏警官学院 刑事技术系,江苏 南京 210031

 

摘 要: 目的 运用裂解气相色谱-质谱法(Py-GC/MS)对常见不同材质塑料制品的主体成分进行分析,并对每种塑料的裂解产物进行解析,为相似塑料物证的比对分析奠定基础。方法 建立了塑料制品的Py-GC/MS分析方法,并对10种常见塑料制品进行分析,解析其裂解总离子流图,确认这10种塑料制品的主要裂解产物和主体成分,同时考察了裂解重复性。结果 10种塑料制品有9种可根据裂解总离子流图确认其主体成分,分别是聚丙烯、聚苯乙烯、聚碳酸酯、ABS塑料、聚氯乙烯、乙烯-乙酸乙烯共聚物,与标准谱库的匹配度均在81 %以上。结论 运用Py-GC/MS法检测塑料物证,裂解产物各组分的分离度较好,测试结果的重现性较好。该方法所需试样量少,无需任何样品前处理,减少了因前处理带来的测试误差。该研究为犯罪现场不同来源的塑料物证的比对分析提供了可行方法。

关键字: 塑料制品;裂解气相色谱-质谱法;匹配度

中图分类号: DF794.3  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.010

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0064-08

 

Analysis of Common Plastic Products

by Pyrolysis-gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

WU Guo-ping ZHOU Ya-hong

Department of Criminal Science and Technology Jiangsu Police Institute Nanjing 210031 China

Abstract: Objective To establish a new method for the comparative analysis of plastic samples by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Py-GC/MS. Method The Py-GC/MS method was established and the repeatability was validated. Ten kinds of common plastic products are analyzed. The main pyrolyzed compounds of each sample were identified and the polymers of the ten plastic samples were determined through library search. Results Nine out of the ten samples were identified as PP PS PC ABS PVC and EVA plastics respectively with similarities no less than 81%. Conclusion The established Py-GC/MS method is suitable for plastic analysis. It is sensitive and of good repeatability. The solid sample could be analyzed directly which reduces the error brought by the sample preparation procedure. This study provides a practical method for the comparative analysis of plastic samples in trace evidence examination.

Keywords: plastic products; pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; similarity

 

 

 

 

 

Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统

在回族人群的法医遗传学多态性

 

俊,胡如芳

(衡阳市公安局 刑侦支队,湖南 衡阳421001

 

摘 要: 目的 调查Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统所包含的STR基因座在回族人群中的法医遗传学信息,用于指导本地区回族人群的法医学分析。方法 应用Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统对湖南长沙市所采集的200名回族健康无关个体进行STR基因座分型检测,统计分析STR基因座的频率数据及法医学参数信息。结果 Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统中包含的23个常染色体STR基因座在回族人群中均符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(H-W平衡),基因座之间相互独立,累积个体识别概率为1- 6.88×10-29,累积非父排除概率为1-7.67×10-11。其中含有的DYS391基因座在回族人群中的基因变异度为0.4547,父权排除概率为0.4524。结论 Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统中含有的STR基因座在回族人群中具有良好的多态性,可应用于法医实际检案及相关科研工作中。

关键词: 法医遗传学;Goldeneye 25A身份识别系统;STR基因座

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.011

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0072-04

 

Application of Goldeneye 25A Identification System in the HUI Population

YANG Jun HU Ru-fang

Criminal Investigation Corps Hengyang Public Security Bureau Hengyang 421001 China

Abstract: Objective To investigate the genetic information of STRs included in Goldeneye 25A Identification system in the local HUI population. Methods By genotyping and analyzing 200 unrelated healthy HUI individuals with Goldeneye 25A Identification system allelic frequencies and forensic parameters information of related STRs were statistically analyzed. Results No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected at the 23 autosomal STRs and all loci were independent form each other. The combined discrimination power was 1- 6.88×10-29 whereas the combined mean exclusion chance was 1- 7.67×10-11. The gene diversity of DYS391 locus was 0.4547 while power of exclusion paternity was 0.4524. Conclusion The included STRs of Goldeneye 25A Identification system are polymorphic in HUI population and can be adopted in forensic case work and research studies.

Keywords: forensic genetics; goldeneye 25A identification system; short tandem repeat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

扫描电镜/能谱法鉴别香烟灰的初探

 

吴清华,李 军,张振宇

(中国刑事警察学院,辽宁 沈阳110035

 

摘 要: 目的 探索扫描电镜/能谱法检验香烟灰样品的可行性。方法 利用扫描电镜/能谱法对收集的25个不同品牌、同一品牌不同档次、同一厂家不同品牌的一系列香烟烟灰样品进行了分析。结果 依据样品扫描电镜/能谱图中KCa元素的相对峰高比可将25个香烟灰样品分为3大类。同一大类的样品有着相似的元素组成,但可以根据所含具体元素种类及其相对百分含量进行进一步区分。同一品牌不同档次、同一厂家不同品牌的香烟灰样品中的元素种类和相对百分含量比也存在明显差异。结论 扫描电镜/能谱法在香烟灰物证的鉴别中是可行的,可用于案件现场遗留的各种香烟灰样品的种属鉴别及比对分析。

关键词: 香烟灰;种属鉴别;扫描电镜/能谱法

中图分类号: DF794.3O615.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.012

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0076-06

 

Discrimination of Cigarette Ash by SEM/EDS

WU Qing-hua LI Jun ZHANG Zhen-yu

National Police University of China Shenyang 110035 China

Abstract: Objective To study the feasibility of distinguishing different cigarette ash samples by SEM/EDS. Method 25 samples of cigarette ash from different manufacturers brands or grades were collected. The ash samples were ground and sputtered with a gold film. Then they were analyzed by SEM/EDS with a accelerated voltage of 30KV at a magnification of 400 times. Results According to the peak height ratio of K and Ca in the spectra 25 samples were divided into 3 categories. The samples in the same category had similar elemental composition but can still be further distinguished according to the specific elements and their relative amounts even those from the same brand but different grades or different brands from the same manufacturer. Conclusion The SEM/EDS method is applicable in distinguishing cigarette ash samples. The study provides a new method for the discrimination of cigarette ash samples from scene. 

Keywords: cigarette ash; discrimination; SEM/EDS

 

 

 

 

 

基于视频图像的道路交通事故信号灯状态鉴定

 

张泽枫,冯 浩,潘少猷,张志勇,邹冬华

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

摘 要: 目的 探索典型视频图像中交通信号灯指示状态鉴定的方法,以促进此项鉴定项目的开展及相关技术标准的制定。方法 从实际案例出发,根据单个视频或图像、汽车行车记录仪、多个视频或图像等三种典型类型,探讨各种情况的鉴定方法,并对误差进行讨论。结果 结合图像中“目标路口交通信号控制主体”等3个要素,分别讨论了三种典型类型的鉴定方法,各类方法主要涉及“由摄像头拍摄频率产生的误差”等4类误差。结论 针对典型视频图像中交通信号灯指示状态鉴定,提出了各自鉴定信号灯的解决方案,具体实践过程中误差由多方面产生,鉴定人需具体案例具体分析。

关键词: 交通信号灯;交通信号灯指示状态鉴定;视频图像

中图分类号: TP391; U491.3  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.013

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0082-05

 

Analysis of the Status of Signal Lights for Intersection Accident Investigation Based on Videos

ZHANG Ze-feng, FENG Hao, PAN Shao-you, ZHANG Zhi-yong, ZOU Dong-hua

Shanghai Forensic Senice Platfrom, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 20063, China

Abstract Objective The typical status of traffic signal lights were studied based on videos to promote the development of the project and relevant technical standards. Method Based on actual cases images of traffic lights from three typical types including a single video or image a vehicle recorder and multiple videos or images were analyzed. Result Combined with the images of the target intersection traffic signal control subjects and two other elements the appraisal methods for the three typical types were discussed. The methods mainly involve four kinds of errors such as the error produced by the camera shooting frequency and so on. Conclusion According to the status of traffic signal light based on typical video images the paper put forward the solution for determining the status of signal lights. Errors may occur due to many reasons and they need to be analyzed by forensic practioners in specific cases.

Keywords: traffic light; forensic expertise of the status of signal light; video and image

 

 

 

 

 

 

瓦特镀镍技术显现金属铜表面油潜手印工艺探析

 

张晓顺1,田 2

1.中国刑事警察学院,辽宁 沈阳 110035 2.上海市刑事科学技术研究院 上海市现场物证重点实验室,上海 200083

 

摘 要: 目的 解决金属铜表面油潜手印显现技术难题,进一步丰富手印显现的技术方法和理论体系。方法 通过电化学方法,利用金属离子在阴极表面的还原反应,研究了瓦特镀镍体系中金属铜表面油潜手印的显现工艺。结果 利用金属铜基体与金属镍镀层存在的明显色差可以清晰显出金属铜表面的油潜手印,显出的手印细节特征清晰,符合检验鉴定工作的需要。结论 在瓦特镀镍体系中,控制阴极电流密度为2.5 A/dm2,电解时间为300 s是比较适宜的显现工艺参数,可应用于实际工作中金属铜表面油潜手印显现。

关键词: 镀镍;油质潜手印;电流密度;电解时间

中图分类号: DF794.1  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.014

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0087-03

 

Research on the Development of Latent Oil Fingerprints on Copper by Watt Nickel Plating

ZHANG Xiao-shun1 TIAN Wei2

1.National Police University of China Shenyang 110035 China; 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence Shanghai Institute of Criminal Science and Technology Shanghai 200083 China

Abstract: Objective To solve the problem of visualizing latent oil fingerprints on copper and enrich the technical methods and theory of latent fingerprint development. Method The watt nickel plating was studied utilizing the reduction reaction of metal ion on cathode. Results The latent oil fingerprints could be developed clearly as there was obvious color contrast between copper and nickel. The quality of developed fingerprints meets the requirements of inspection and identification. Conclusion Electrolysis with cathode current density of 2.5A/dm2 for 300s was proved to be suitable in watt nickel plating. The method can be applied in forensic practice.

Keywords: nickel plating; latent oil fingerprint; current density; electrolysis time

 

 

 

 

 

精神障碍医学鉴定的不可行性分析

 

鑫,赵彩飞,马长锁

(中国政法大学 证据科学教育部重点实验室,北京 100088 2011”司法文明协同创新中心,北京 100088

 

摘 要: 被送到精神病医院住院治疗的患者,如果患者近亲属与医师在精神障碍诊断上发生分歧,《精神卫生法》规定对再次诊断的结论不服的可以实施精神障碍医学鉴定程序。虽然精神障碍医学鉴定的规定早已有之,在《刑事诉讼法》(1996)中也曾经规定过,然而由于鉴定主体、鉴定性质、鉴定时限、鉴定费用等与临床诊断决然不同,导致现实中这一规定犹如空中楼阁,难以落地和实践。如果患者及其近亲属对精神障碍诊断有不同意见,可以医疗侵权诉讼解决。

关键词: 精神障碍;非住院治疗;医学鉴定;精神卫生法;司法鉴定

中图分类号: DF795.3  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.015

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0090-06

 

 

 

 

 

我国司法鉴定行业管理刍议

—— 以行业协会为视角

 

陈维娜

(华东政法大学,上海 200042; 中国人民公安大学,北京 100038

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定行业管理的主体是司法鉴定行业协会。司法鉴定行业协会是由司法鉴定机构和司法鉴定人及其他相关机构和人员自愿组成的专业性、非营利性社会团体法人。目前,司法鉴定行业管理对司法鉴定的科学化、规范化、专业化、制度化建设起到了积极作用,已成为司法鉴定管理中不可或缺的支柱之一。但不可否认,受到各种各样的因素制约,我国目前的司法鉴定行业管理还存在一定问题,作为行业管理主体的行业协会发展受到制约,全国性的司法鉴定行业协会尚未建立,这些都不利于司法鉴定事业的健康发展。从科学定位、组织形式、会员构成、管理职能等方面对我国司法鉴定行业协会的现状进行分析,指出我国司法鉴定行业协会发展的焦点问题,为建立全国性的司法鉴定行业协会提出参考性建议,是健全统一司法鉴定管理体制的应有之义。

关键词: 司法鉴定行业协会;司法鉴定管理;司法鉴定制度

中图分类号: DF794;DF8  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.0.016

文章编号: 1671-2072-20180-0096-05

 

 

 

 

 

 

孤眼外伤致盲伤残评定1

 

高晨飞1,高运申2

1.美国路易斯安那州立大学食品与营养学院,美国 巴吞努日; 2.北京博大司法鉴定所,北京 100050

 

关键词: 法医临床学;眼球破裂;盲目;伤残评定

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码:A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.017

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0101-02

 

 

 

 

交通事故中胫腓骨多段骨折并发骨髓炎的评残1

 

钟增平

(广东西湖司法鉴定所,广东 惠州 516000

 

关键词: 交通事故;胫腓骨骨折;骨髓炎;伤残鉴定        

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.01.018

文章编号: 1671-2072-201801-0103-03


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